What is Nano Medicine ?

The existing situation in the sphere of medicine, therapeutic methods of treatment and clinical psychology is determined to a considerable degree by discontent by practical means they have at their disposal. This actively prompts researches to search of new approaches to development of higher mental performance models and technologies of medical practice in the field of general therapy, contributing to creation of new effective methods of prevention and treatment of human diseases. 

Modern medicine begins active use of nano-technologies gains and thus develops its new direction i.e. so called nano-medicine

This article is a short analytic survey of nano-technologies that underwent clinic tests and have prospects of practical use in medical practice and pharmacy. In this article I will try to systemize and generalize problems and achievements of nano-medicine, a science that is not really wide existing, but only an incipient one. Leading scientists predict, it is this branch of medicine that will prevail in the second half of twenty first century. 

Today there is probably no complete definition for the notion of nano-medicine. The only thing that can be said is that nano-medicine is medicine, based on the achievements of modern science, encompassing almost all knowledge, accumulated by mankind.

Nano-medicine is one of the dynamically developing medicine scientific directions and it implies monitoring, improvement, genetic correction and control of biologic systems of human body on molecular level, using nano-devices, nano-structures and information technologies.

This definition was given by Robert Freitas, the leading discoverer in this field and analyst of Institute of Molecular Manufacturing (IMM). More simply, nano-medicine is symbiosis of traditional, classical medicine, quantum mechanics, nuclear physics and supramolecular chemistry. The nano-medicine practice uses gains of nano-technologies in treatment and biologic rejuvenation of human body, including achievement of its physical immortality. Contemporary views of medicine on the field of organ pathology and nervous system pathology development are based on the idea that paraplasms are cellular structures with reversed parameters, united in an integral system [1]. 

System mechanisms of pathologic lesions manifest with different forms of pathologies on various levels of structural and functional organization of nervous system. In different combinations and variants the typical pathologic processes appear in the form of different clinical entities of diseases. 

The development of system oriented approach in hominal physiology and general pathology, and on this basis elaboration of polyparametric methodology and regulation methods of functional states of organism as an integral system, is a complicated interdisciplinary scientific task [2, 3, 4]. 

Nano-medicine as a science is meant not only simply improve already existing regulation methods of functional states of human body, but also introduce qualitatively new methods of treatment. This qualitative leap in medicine is to be embodied using new physical principles, information and telecommunication technologies, nano-computers and nano-robots. Contemporary state and trends of nano-technologies development give rise of optimism concerning cybernetic way of nano-technologies development.

When the question is about nano-medicine development, the following directions are meant:

Usage of nano-technologic computer intellectual and imaginative method of cognitive graphics for control of biologic objects of organism to provide regeneration of organs, systems and tissues, prolongation of physical existence of human beings;
  • Usage of nano-technologic computer with artificial intellect , including “smart nano-robots”, comparable with molecules and atoms in their dimensions for abolition of pathological states and infective agents, provoking the disease progress;
  • Direct manipulation by single components of the substance, atoms, molecules for genetic correction of human genome using special equipment;
  • Evolution of information and telecommunication methods;
  • Evolution of polyparametric functional and organ nano-technology, including morphologic diagnostics on the basis of intellectual and imaginative systems and cognitive graphics as well as nano-computer technologies of functional human body state control.
That is why the transition from “classic medicine” to “nano-medicine” is already qualitative rather then quantitative change, i.e. the leap from substance manipulation using biochemical reactions methods to manipulation by single components of cellular substance from nano- to yokto- linear dimensions. Thus, nano-medicine, therefore works not with the substance itself, but with its components. 

The peculiarity of nano-medicine is that it is a complex process in which new methods or medicaments afford an new opportunities and better solutions without replacing previous medical methods and technology of medical product manufacturing. Thus, the use of nano-technologies in medicine inspires new life in old time-proved methods and technologies of human health rehabilitation as well as prolongation of his life without any changes in the whole today existing technologic chain. 

Contemporary natural sciences do not know any fundamental principle that forbids life prolongation.
The means to overcome age is the high tech complex named nano-medicine, it discovers new world in many directions that until recently seemed fantastic.

So, what nano-medicine can?

Many speak about nano-technologies in medicine and nano-medicine as about scientific and technological revolution, but a few really know what it is. The world changes quickly and many things that seemed fantastic before become real. Nano-medicine and nano-technologies fundamentally change our ideas of human beings. One can speak about nano-medicine, able to show the “miracle” of regeneration of systems, organs and tissues of human body, to solve the problems of genetic diseases and biologic ageing as about medical scientific and technologic revolution. Revolution named “nano-medicine” is already outlined today. 

Nano-medicine is a new perspective scientific concept of medicine, based on point influence on the organism on atom and molecular levels, and use of new physical principles, tiny nano-robots, information and telecommunication technologies, nano-computers with artificial intellect, designed for this purpose. 

Contemporary state and trends of nano-medicine development create prerequisites for cybernetic nano-medicine technologies development. At present this new interdisciplinary school of medical science is on the stage of formation. Its methods only emerge from laboratories, and most of them exist only as projects. However, most experts believe that it is these nano-technologic methods that will be prevailing in XXI century. For example American National Institute of Health included nano-medicine in the five high-priority medicine development areas in XXI and National Cancer Institute of USA is going to apply nano-medicine achievement in cancer treatment. Application of nano-technologies in treatment of such socially important human diseases as oncology, cardiology, and infective diseases will delete many diseases from the list of dangerous illnesses; all people will enjoy life far longer.

Science develops rapidly and it is not surprising that in several years nano-medicine will be as accessible as Internet!

The result of all previous scientific and technological revolutions was that people more and more proficiently copied mechanisms and materials created by Nature. The breakthrough in the sphere of nano-technologies is quite the other thing. For the first time human being will create a new matter that was unknown and inaccessible to Nature. In fact, science has come closer to modelling the principles of living matter creation, where unknown to contemporary science laws are functioning. The predominance in science the so-called “thought inertness” constantly reduces the notion of “nano-technologies” to elementary mechanic approach: either to forming the ultrafine phase of substance or to attempts to combine incompatible by mere mechanic way i.e. to build a complex biologic construction from single atoms, without taking into consideration the peculiarities of quantum mechanics laws. Journalists, decorating their articles by the pictures of submarines with mechanisms, gnawing plaques on the vascular walls, only frighten readers. The molecule, using “nano-technologic” methods, can not be depicted as it does not have “image” in our common understanding. 

Primitive mechanistic approach to use of nano-technologies that does not take into consideration their ability to nuclear transformation of the substance can have catastrophic consequences. One of the spectacular examples of this unreason can be creation of ultrafine phase of substance and use of it, passing them off as nano-technologies, for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. It is well known that ultrafine phase of any substance is a highly active cancerogene i.e. a substance that provokes such menacing illness as cancer, at the same time few people think about the consequences. 

Evolution of nano-technologies pose new and at times unpredictable dangers, especially linked with provocations of different kinds, due to insufficiently competent estimation of possible global consequences, and that is why the role of state as a guarantee of nano-technologies safety. And this is not only idle words, but reality, based on particular facts, when the whole humanity two times was under the threat of total destruction due to absolute irresponsibleness and incompetence of scientific consultants, serving provocateurs. Based on the above, one can conclude that every state, which has mastered nano-technologies, takes the burden of responsibility for the fate of the whole mankind, and even greater, than when possessing thermonuclear weapon. Taking into consideration colossal scale possibilities for non-military use, nano-technologies can be used also for military purposes. For example, nano-medicine equipment and vice versa nano-medicine equipment with transformed parameters – this phrase tells a good deal to competent specialists. 

That is why nano-technologies can be either great benefit of total destruction of mankind, but it is better to make them great benefit.
 
>At present there exist no standards of nano-technologic equipment control in any country of the world. The only way to control is direct testing of finished nano-technologic devices. Considering specific peculiarities of quantum mechanics and nuclear physics, used in creation of such devices, there appears urgent necessity of fundamental research of nano-world laws to define criteria of nano-technologies estimation and to form technical regulations. Of course in view of high cost of such works and for maintenance of commercial confidentiality, one can not do without financial state support.

Npano-diagnostics

For the past several decades visualization methods became the crucial instrument in the diagnostics of illnesses. Nuclear magnetic resonance and computer-assisted tomography are excellent methods, but nano-technology permits to create far more sensitive and extremely precise instruments for diagnostics in vitro and in vivo with the abilities that are far beyond of that of modern diagnostic equipment. 

As in any evolution of diagnostic methods the final aim is to allow doctors to identify the disease as early as possible. Using nano-computers and the so called “Hesin phenomenon” (see Large medical Encyclopedia) a principle opportunity to make diagnosis on cellular and even sub-cellular levels is created (1993). 

The development of poly-parametric functional and organ nano-technology, including morphologic diagnostics, on the basis of intellectual and imagery systems and cognitive graphics, as well as nano-computer technologies of control of human body functional state is one of the most perspective ways to develop complex diagnostics and practical clinic therapeutics. Novelty of this method consists in combining of Luscher colour test and matrix cognitive graphics that uses self-similarity of multifractal structures, formed by computer system and inner structures of the organism. The self-similarity principle organizes the system of informational interaction “man – machine” in natural way. The systems “man” and “machine” interact with the help of feedback, organized on the basis of visual cognitive channel with the function of unconscious, similarly to mechanism of the known in physics and radiotechnics phenomenon of “wavefront reversal” (The discoveries in the USSR № 215. 1976) used for restoration of lost information in the communication channel. The method provides an opportunity to remedy functional disorders in human body as a whole system.
Originality and effectiveness of the method allow us to assert that its further development will give an opportunity to settle the matter of convertibility of pathologic processes by means of cellular matrix restoration according to the ideas of Reckeveg, the founder of homo-toxicology and A. Pishinger’s doctrine about crucial role of “matrix” in human body. 

Further development of the suggested computer intellectual and imagery method of cognitive graphics leads to creation of new medicine technologies related to systems, organs and tissues regeneration that will increase the quality of different disease entities treatment, including in early stages. The technology allows us to avoid medical problems, which appear in the process of cells transplantation and tissues growing using the so called “stem cells”, tackle the problems of genetic diseases. However, with the aim of protection against “unscrupulous competitors” who try to use this technology in military purposes and by safety considerations, in 1992 all the technical documentation was liquidated. 

At present the works are underway to create more advanced pluripotential systems of diagnostics on the basis of the so called “living computers” that work on new physical principles (see “Living computers of XXI”) with the highest degree of access security.
The performed private scientific research and development of the technology have nothing to do with the adopted by the Ministry of Science of Russian Federation scientific concept “The development of poly-parametric technology of functional diagnostics on the basis of intellectual and imagery systems and cognitive graphics”, which is concurrently worked out in the Centre of new informational technologies of Lomonosov Moscow State University and in P.K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology. 

Literature:
1. Крыжановский Г.Н., Общая патофизиология нервной системы Руководство - К85, М., Медицина, 1997.
2. Анохин П.К., Очерки по физиологии функциональных систем. М., Медицина, 1975.
3. Коган А.Б., Основы физиологии высшей нервной деятельности. М., Высшая школа, 1988.
4. Котляр Б.И., Шульговский В.В., Физиология центральной нервной системы. М., Изд-во МГУ, 1979.
5. Reckeweg H.H. Pathogenese und Therapie rheumatischer E
6. А. Пашковская, «Выступление заместителя министра здравоохранения Т.И. Стуколовой, на Международном инвестиционном симпозиуме в Москве»., "Фармвестник"№11 2006 г. 

Source : http://www.hesin-tech.com/article11.html

Islam Contribution to Science World

Astronomy

The most precise solar calendar, superior to the Julian, is the Jilali, devised under the supervision of Umar Khayyam.

The Quran contains many references to astronomy:
"And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming." [Noble Quran 21:33]

These references, and the injunctions to learn, inspired the early Muslim scholars to study the heavens. They integrated the earlier works of the Indians, Persians and Greeks into a new synthesis.


Ptolemy's Almagest (the title as we know it today is actually Arabic) was translated, studied and criticized. Many new stars were discovered, as we see in their Arabic names - Algol, Deneb, Betelgeuse, Rigel, Aldebaran. Astronomical tables were compiled, among them the Toledan tables, which were used by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe and Kepler.


Also compiled were almanacs - another Arabic term. Other terms from Arabic are zenith, nadir, Aledo, azimuth.


Muslim astronomers were the first to establish observatories, like the one built at Mugharah by Hulagu, the son of Genghis Khan, in Persia, and they invented instruments such as the quadrant and astrolabe, which led to advances not only in astronomy but in oceanic navigation, contributing to the European age of exploration.


Geography


Muslim scholars paid great attention to geography. In fact, the Muslims' great concern for geography originated with their religion.


The Quran encourages people to travel throughout the earth to see God's signs and patterns everywhere. Islam also requires each Muslim to have at least enough knowledge of geography to know the direction of the Qiblah (the position of the Ka'bah in Makkah) in order to pray five times a day.


Muslims were also used to taking long journeys to conduct trade as well as to make the Hajj and spread their religion. The far-flung Islamic empire enabled scholar-explorers to compile large amounts of geographical and climatic information from the Atlantic to the Pacific.


Among the most famous names in the field of geography, even in the West, are Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Batuta, renowned for their written accounts of their extensive explorations.


In 1166, Al-Idrisi, the well-known Muslim scholar who served the Sicilian court, produced very accurate maps, including a world map with all the continents and their mountains, rivers and famous cities. Al-Muqdishi was the first geographer to produce accurate maps in color.


Spain was ruled by Muslims under the banner of Islam for over 700 years. By the 15th century of the Gregorian calendar the ruler-ship of Islam had been seated in Spain and Muslims had established centers of learning which commanded respect all over the known world at that time. There were no "Dark Ages" such the rest of Europe experienced for the Muslims in Spain and those who lived there with them. In January of 1492 Muslim Spain capitulated to Catholic Rome under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. By July of the same year, Muslims were instrumental in helping navigate Christopher Columbus to the Caribbean South of Florida.


It was, moreover, with the help of Muslim navigators and their inventions that Magellan was able to traverse the Cape of Good Hope, and Da Gamma and Columbus had Muslim navigators on board their ships.


Humanity


Seeking knowledge is obligatory in Islam for every Muslim, man and woman. The main sources of Islam, the Quran and the Sunnah (Prophet Muhammad's traditions), encourage Muslims to seek knowledge and be scholars, since this is the best way for people to know Allah (God), to appreciate His wondrous creations and be thankful for them.


Muslims have always been eager to seek knowledge, both religious and secular, and within a few years of Muhammad's mission, a great civilization sprang up and flourished. The outcome is shown in the spread of Islamic universities; Al-Zaytunah in Tunis, and Al-Azhar in Cairo go back more than 1,000 years and are the oldest existing universities in the world. Indeed, they were the models for the first European universities, such as Bologna, Heidelberg, and the Sorbonne. Even the familiar academic cap and gown originated at Al-Azhar University.


Muslims made great advances in many different fields, such as geography, physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, architecture, linguistics and astronomy. Algebra and the Arabic numerals were introduced to the world by Muslim scholars. The astrolabe, the quadrant, and other navigational devices and maps were developed by Muslim scholars and played an important role in world progress, most notably in Europe's age of exploration.


Muslim scholars studied the ancient civilizations from Greece and Rome to China and India. The works of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid and others were translated into Arabic. Muslim scholars and scientists then added their own creative ideas, discoveries and inventions, and finally transmitted this new knowledge to Europe, leading directly to the Renaissance. Many scientific and medical treatises, having been translated into Latin, were standard text and reference books as late as the 17th and 18th centuries.


Mathematics


Muslim mathematicians excelled in geometry, as can be seen in their graphic arts, and it was the great Al-Biruni (who excelled also in the fields of natural history, even geology and mineralogy) who established trigonometry as a distinct branch of mathematics. Other Muslim mathematicians made significant progress in number theory.


It is interesting to note that Islam so strongly urges mankind to study and explore the universe. For example, the Noble Quran states:


"We (Allah) will show you (mankind) Our signs/patterns in the horizons/universe and in yourselves until you are convinced that the revelation is the truth."

[Noble Quran 41:53]





islam and scienceThis invitation to explore and search made Muslims interested in astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, and the other sciences, and they had a very clear and firm understanding of the correspondences among geometry, mathematics, and astronomy.


The Muslims invented the symbol for zero (The word "cipher" comes from Arabic sifr), and they organized the numbers into the decimal system - base 10. Additionally, they invented the symbol to express an unknown quantity, i.e. variables like x.


The first great Muslim mathematician, Al-Khawarizmi, invented the subject of algebra (al-Jabr), which was further developed by others, most notably Umar Khayyam. Al-Khawarizmi's work, in Latin translation, brought the Arabic numerals along with the mathematics to Europe, through Spain. The word "algorithm" is derived from his name.



Medicine


In Islam, the human body is a source of appreciation, as it is created by Almighty Allah (God). How it functions, how to keep it clean and safe, how to prevent diseases from attacking it or cure those diseases, have been important issues for Muslims.


Ibn Sina (d. 1037), better known to the West as Avicenna, was perhaps the greatest physician until the modern era. His famous book, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, remained a standard textbook even in Europe, for over 700 years. Ibn Sina's work is still studied and built upon in the East.


Prophet Muhammad himself urged people to "take medicines for your diseases", as people at that time were reluctant to do so. He also said,


"God created no illness, except that He has established for it a cure, except for old age. When the antidote is applied, the patient will recover with the permission of God."





Since the religion did not forbid it, Muslim scholars used human cadavers to study anatomy and physiology and to help their students understand how the body functions. This empirical study enabled surgery to develop very quickly.


Al-Razi, known in the West as Rhazes, the famous physician and scientist, (d. 932) was one of the greatest physicians in the world in the Middle Ages. He stressed empirical observation and clinical medicine and was unrivalled as a diagnostician. He also wrote a treatise on hygiene in hospitals. Kahaf Abul-Qasim Al-Sahabi was a very famous surgeon in the eleventh century, known in Europe for his work, Concession (Kitab al-Tasrif).


Other significant contributions were made in pharmacology, such as Ibn Sina's Kitab al-Shifa' (Book of Healing), and in public health. Every major city in the Islamic world had a number of excellent hospitals, some of them teaching hospitals, and many of them were specialized for particular diseases, including mental and emotional. The Ottomans were particularly noted for their building of hospitals and for the high level of hygiene practiced in them.

Source :  http://scienceislam.com/muslims_science.php

Penelitian : Ternyata Tumbuhan Juga Saling Berkomunikasi

Penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa tumbuhan ternyata saling berkomunikasi. Para peneliti memodifikasi gen kubis yang memicu keluarnya gas saat permukaan tanaman dipotong atau dilubangi. Modifikasi gen itu demi membuktikan bahwa tanaman "saling berbicara".

tanaman putri maluPeneliti menambahkan luciferase protein ke DNA sehingga emisi tanaman 'dapat dipantau di depan kamera. Luciferase protein menimbulkan cahaya kunang-kunang dalam gelap.

Tanaman kubis yang daunnya dipotong dengan gunting mulai memancarkan gas - jasmonat metil - yang 'memberitahu' tumbuhan di lain bahwa ada bahaya di sekitar mereka.

Dua tanaman kubis di dekat tanaman yang dipotong itu menerima pesan untuk melindungi diri. Mereka melindungi diri dengan memproduksi bahan kimia beracun pada daun untuk menangkis predator seperti ulat.

Ini adalah untuk pertama kalinya proses tersebut tertangkap kamera. Para ilmuwan mengatakan penelitian itu makin memperbesar dugaan bahwa semua tanaman berkomunikasi satu sama lain melalui 'bahasa rumit yang tidak terlihat'.

Rekaman itu akan ditampilkan sebagai cuplikan dari serial tiga bagian "How to Grow a Planet" yang ditayangkkan oleh BBC belum lama ini.

Profesor Ian Stewart yang melakukan percobaan tersebut di Exeter University, mengatakan: "gas tersebut memicu perubahan aktivitas biologis dua tanaman di sebelahnya. Mereka mendeteksi pesan yang memperingatkan mereka untuk melindungi diri."

"Mungkin ada obrolan konstan antar berbagai tanaman, bahwa mereka secara kimia dapat merasakan hal yang terjadi pada tumbuhan lain, ini tak ubahnya ada bahasa rahasia yang tersembunyi di sekitar kita," ujarnya dikutip dari BBC, 7 Pebruari 2012.

"Kebanyakan orang berasumsi bahwa tanaman menjalani hidup bukan pasif, kenyataannya mereka bergerak, punya rasa, dan berkomunikasi, hampir bisa disebut mereka punya sejenis kecerdasan," kata profesor Ian.

Profesor Nick Smirnoff yang memimpin penelitian itu mengemukakan bahwa temuan mereka bukan berarti bahwa tanaman bisa merasakan sakit. Tanaman tidak memiliki saraf.

Profesor Smirnoff, ahli biokimia, mengatakan: "Kami telah berhasil menunjukkan secara visual bahwa gas yang dipancarkan oleh tanaman ketika terluka akan mempengaruhi tanaman di sekitarnya."

"Belum jelas mengapa hal itu akan menguntungkan tanaman lainnya karena tanaman selalu saling bersaing. Masih banyak yang harus dipelajari."

Bertasbih

Belum lama ini, sebuah penelitian ilmiah yang diberitakan oleh majalah sains terkenal, Journal of Plant Molecular Biologist, menyebutkan bahwa sekelompok ilmuwan yang mengadakan penelitian mendapatkan suara halus yang keluar dari sebagian tumbuhan yang tidak biasa didengar oleh telinga biasa. Suara tersebut berhasil disimpan dan direkam dengan sebuah alat perekam tercanggih yang pernah ada.

Para ilmuwan selama hampir 3 tahun meneliti fenomena yang mencengangkan ini berhasil menganalisis denyutan atau detak suara tersebut sehingga menjadi isyarat-isyarat yang bersifat cahaya elektrik (kahrudhahiyah) dengan sebuah alat yang bernama Oscilloscope. Para ilmuwan menyaksikan denyutan cahaya elektrik itu berulang lebih dari 1000 kali dalam satu detik.

Keajaiban ini sebenarnya banyak disampaikan dalam al-Quran di mana semua makhluk hidup di dunia ini berstasbih dan bersujud di hadapan Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala.

Dalam bukunya “Bahkan Jagat Raya Pun Bertasbih”, Dr. Ahmad Syawqi Ibrahim mengungkap banyak rahasia tumbuh-tumbuhan yang sesungguhnya hidup dan bertasbih kepada Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala.
Dalam Surat Israa’: 44 yang menunjukkan sesungguhnya, langit, bumi dan tumbuh-tumbuhan itu bertasbih kepada Allah, hanya manusia tak mengerti cara tasbih mereka.
“Langit yang tujuh, bumi dan semua yang ada di dalamnya bertasbih kepada Allah. Dan tak ada suatupun melainkan bertasbih dengan memuji-Nya, tetapi kamu sekalian tidak mengerti tasbih mereka. Sesungguhnya Dia adalah Maha Penyantun lagi Maha Pengampun.” (QS: Israa’: 44).

Dalam ayat lain disebutkan, “Dan tumbuh-tumbuhan dan pohon-pohonan kedua-duanya tunduk kepada-Nya.” (Q.S Ar-Rahman [55]: 6)

Dalam surat Al Hajj juga disebutkan, “Apakah kamu tiada mengetahui, bahwa kepada Allah bersujud apa yang ada di langit, di bumi, matahari, bulan, bintang, gunung, pohon-pohonan, binatang-binatang yang melata dan sebagian besar daripada manusia? Dan banyak di antara manusia yang telah ditetapkan azab atasnya. Dan barangsiapa yang dihinakan Allah maka tidak seorangpun yang memuliakannya. Sesungguhnya Allah berbuat apa yang Dia kehendaki.” [Al-Hajj: 18].
Maha benar Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala dan kebenaran Islam yang telah diturunkan Nya.


sumber : http://hidayatullah.com/read/21058/09/02/2012/subhanallah,-tumbuhan-saling-berkomunikasi.html
 

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